|DreemPoodle Vaccination recommendations
In the past there have been many different vaccination
recommendations for dogs from veterinarians across the United
States based on the best available information.
Not all available small animal vaccines may be suitable for our
program. Infectious disease risk may vary and our routine
vaccination program may not be suitable for all localities. Anyone
using our routine vaccination program is encouraged to follow the
guidelines that are its basis and use the program at their own
The health status and infectious disease risks of your pet
should be considered in the selection of a vaccination program.
Our adoption of this routine vaccination program is based on the
lack of scientific evidence to support the current practice of
annual vaccination and increasing documentation showing that
overvaccinating has been associated with harmful side effects. Of
particular note in this regard has been the association of
autoimmune hemolytic anemia with vaccination in dogs
With boosters (except for rabies vaccine), the annual
revaccination recommendation on the vaccine label is just that -- a
recommendation without the backing of long term duration of
immunity studies, and is not a legal requirement. Rabies vaccine is
the only commonly used vaccine that requires that duration of
immunity studies be carried out before licensure in the United
States. Even with rabies vaccines, the label may be misleading in
that a three year duration of immunity product may also be labeled
and sold as a one year duration of immunity product.
Based on the concern that annual vaccination of small animals
for many, but not all, infectious agents is probably no longer
scientifically justified, and our desire to avoid
vaccine-associated adverse events, we are recommending the
described routine immunization program.
This Program recommends the standard three shot series for
puppies (parvovirus, adenovirus 2, parainfluenza, distemper) to
include rabies after 16 weeks of age. Following the initial puppy
immunization series, dogs will be boostered one year later and then
every three years thereafter for all the above diseases.
Similar small animal vaccination programs have been recently
adopted by university teaching hospitals.
Other available small animal vaccines, which may need more
frequent administration, i.e., intranasal parainfluenza,
Bordetella, may be recommended on an "at risk" basis but are
not a part of the routine protocol. Recent studies clearly indicate
that not all vaccines perform equally and some vaccine products may
not be suitable for such a program.
SMALL ANIMAL VACCINES SELECTED FOR OUR PROGRAM
Progard -5 (Intervet)
Progard KC (Intervet)
Imrab 3 (Rhone Merieux) (Dog)
NONROUTINE VACCINE RECOMMENDATIONS
- Intranasal Bordetella/Parainfluenza
To be used just prior to possible exposure to kennel cough
carriers, i.e., shows, field trials, etc. May be repeated up to
six times per year.
For those interested in reading more about small animal
immunization issues, the following is a suggested reading list.
SUGGESTED READING LIST
- Apple MJ. Forty years of Canine vaccination. Adv Vet Med
- Charmichael LE. Canine viral vaccines at a turning point--a
personal perspective. Adv Vet Med 1999;41:289-307
- Chalmers WSK, Baxendale W. A comparison of canine distemper
vaccine and measles vaccine for the prevention of canine
distemper in young puppies. Vet Rec 1994;135:349-353
- Dodds WJ. Vaccination protocols for dogs predisposed to
vaccine reactions. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2001;37:211-214
- Dubielzig RR, Everitt J, Shadduck JA, et al: Clinical and
morphologic features of posttraumatic ocular sarcomas in cats.
Vet Pathol 27:62-65, 1990.
- Dubielzig RR, Hawkins KL, Miller PE: Myofibroblastic sarcoma
originating at the site of rabies vaccination in a cat. J Vet
Diagn Invest 5:637-638, 1993.
- Duval D, Giger URS: Vaccine associated immune-mediated
hemolytic anemia in the dog. J Vet Int Med 10:290-295, 1996.
- Ellis JA, Haines DM, West KH, et al. Effect of vaccination on
experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs. J
Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:367-375.
- Esplin DG, McGill L, Meininger A, et al: Postvaccination
sarcomas in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 202:1245-1247, 1993.
- Fawcett HA, Smith HP: Injection-site granuloma due to
aluminum. Arch Dermatol 120:1318-1322, 1984.
- Greene CE: Vaccine induced complications verses
overvaccination. Proceedings of the 65th annual AAHA meeting,
Chicago, 1998, pp 368-369.
- Green CE, Schultz RD, Ford RB. Canine vacination. Vet Clin
North Am Small Anim Pract 2001;31:473-492.
- Greene CE. Environmental factors in infectious disease. In,
Greene CE (ed). Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Second
edition, WB Sunnders Co., Philadelphia, 1998, pp 673-683.
- Hendrick MJ, Brooks JJ: Postvaccinal sarcomas in the cat:
Histology and immunohistochemistry. Vet Pathol 31:126-129, 1994.
- Hendrick MJ, Dunagan C: Focal necrotizing granulomatous
panniculitis associated with subcutaneous injection of rabies
vaccine in cats and dogs: 10 cases (1988-1989) J Am Vet Med Assoc
- Hendrick MJ, Goldschmidt MH: Do injection site reactions
induce fibrosarcomas in cats? J Am Vet Med Assoc 199:968, 1991.
- Hendrick MJ, Goldschmidt MH, Shofer F, et al: Postvaccinal
sarcomas in the cat: Epidemiology and electron probe
microanalytical identification of aluminum. Cancer Res
- Hendrick MJ, Kass PH, McGill LD, et al: Commentary:
Postvaccinal sarcomas in cats. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:5, 1994.
- Hendrick MJ, Shofer FS, Goldschmidt MH, et al: Comparison of
fibrosarcomas that developed at vaccination sites and at
nonvaccination sites in cats: 239 cases (1991-1992). J Am Vet Med
Assoc 205:1425-1429, 1994.
- Kass PH, Barnes WG, Spangler WL, et al: Epidemiologic
evidence for a causal relation between vaccination and
fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc
- Keil DJ, Fenwick B. Evaluation of canine Bordetella
bronchiseptica isolates using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA
finger printing and ribotyping. Vet Microbiol 1999;66:41-51
- Larson LV, Schultz RD: Comparison of selected canine vaccines
for the inability to induce protective immunity against canine
parvovirus infections. AJVR 1997 58:4, 360-363, 1997.
- Larson RL, Bradley JS: Immunologic principles and
immunization strategy. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 1996;18:963-970.
- McCaw Dl, Thompson M, Tate D, ey al. Serum distemper virus
and parvovirus antibody titers among dogs brought to a veterinary
hospital for revaccination. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:72-75
- Macy DW. The potential role and mechanisms of FeLV
vaccine-induced neoplasms. Sem Vet Med Surg 1995;10:234-238.
- Macy DW, et al. Vaccine associated sarcomas in cats. Fel
- Macy DW, et al. Postvaccinal reactions associated with three
rabies and three leukemia virus vaccines in cats. Proc. 14th
Annual Vet Cancer Soc Cof., Veterinary Cancer Society, Townsend,
- Macy DW, Hendrick MJ: The potential role of inflammation in
the development of postvaccinal sarcomas in cats. Seminars in Vet
Med and Surg 26:103-109, 1996.
- Macy DW, Vaccination against feline retroviruses. In, August
JR (ed), Consultations in Feline Internal Medicine. Second
edition, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1994. pp33-39.
- Macy DW. Are we vaccinating too much? J Am Vet Med Assoc
- Olson P, et al. Duration of immunity eliceited by canine
distemper virus vaccinatons in dogs. Vet Rec 1997;141:654-655.
- Pedersen NC: Perspectives on small animal vaccination: A
critical look at current vaccines and vaccine strategies in the
United States. Proceedings AAHA 145-156, 1997.
- Phillips TR, Schultz RD: Canine and feline vaccines. Kirk R
and Bonagura JD (eds). Current Veterinary Therapy XI, WB Saunders
Co., Philadelphia, 1992, pp 202-206.
- Roth JA. The principles of vaccination: the factors behind
vaccine efficacy and failure. Vet Med 1991;86:406-414
- Roth JA. Characterization of protective antigens and the
protective immune response. Vet Microbiol 1993;37:193-199
- Schultz RD: Current and future canine and feline vaccination
programs. Veterinary Medicine 233-254, March 1998.
- Schultz RD: Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics in Advances
in Veterinary Medicine, 41, 1999 pp. 1-853.
- Scott FW: Duration of immunity in cats vaccinated with an
inactivated feline panleukopenia, herpesvirus, and calicivirus
vaccine. Fel Pract 1997;25:12-22.
- Smith CA: Current concepts: Are we vaccinating too much? J Am
Vet Med Assoc 207:421-425,1995.
- Tizard I: Risks associated with the use of live vaccines. J
Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;196:1851-1858.
- Twark L, Dodds WJ. Coinical use of serum parvovirus and
distemper virus antibody titers for determining revaccination
strategies in healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 200;217:1021-1024
- Van Kampen KR. recombinant vaccine technology in veterinary
medicine. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001;31:353-538